Simply speaking, Lambda Expressions are basically anonnymous functions.

Lambda Expressions, in the past decade, have been introduced almost all major progamming languages due to their simplicity and conciseness. In java lambda expressions were introduced in Java 8. However you can use the RetroLamda Library if you are still using the previous versions of Java.

Lambda Expressions involve using the lamda operator: ->, basically an arrow pointing to the right.

Then you place the inputs on the left and the function body on the right.


The statements or code you write in your program normally get executed in a sequential manner, one after the other.


JavaFX is seen as the ultimate successor to swing.

It was introduced in the year 2008 as JavaFX 1.0. During that time JavaFX was using a declarative language called JavaFX Script to create applications. However this was dropped in the year 2011.

JavaFX allows developing of Rich Internet Applications in Java programming language.

JavaFX applications can take advantage of hardware acceleration when rendering scene graph.

A scene graph is a collection of visual elements in JavaFX, usually organized in a hierarchical manner.


Serialization is the process of converting flexible in memory objects to a rigid binary implementation.

Basically you convert an object into a bytestream.

That stream can then be:

  1. Stored in a File.
  2. Sento over the network.
  3. Persisted in the Database.

The reverse process is called Deserialization. It involves taking the bytestream and loading it back into memory as an object. That object can then be programmatically manipulated.


JavaFX is modern open source GUI toolkit first released in the year 2008 for developing rich internet applications(RIAs) in Java.

During the first years of introduction, JavafX used a statically typed declarative language called JavaFX Script.

However this did not attract so many Java developers.

Sp JavaFX 2.0 was released in the year 2011. This version dropped the support for JavaFX Script. JavaFX programs were to be written purely using the Java Programming language.

Currently javaFX runtime is part of the Java Runtime Environment(JRE).


Loops are control structures that allow you to execute a piece or pieces of code repeatedly.

Thorugh loops you can cycle through a section of code multiple times as long as a condition is true.

Importance of Loops

Loops are a vital part of imperative programming and one of the fundamental aspe...


This is an interface whose implementers have the capability of being cloned.

To clone is to make a copy of. Hence implementers of the Cloneable interface can be made copy of.


Java provides us with an intuitive way of creating and working with sequence of characters that can be modified.


The software or applications you run in any device are written by programmers.

The process of writing instructions that run in a computer is called computer programming. The CPU(Central Processing Unit), runs these instructions one by one.

However, it only understands the instructions in form of machine language.Machine language comprises only zeros(0s) and ones(1s).

Our minds, however, cannot recall and work with thousands or millions of 0s and 1s. So experienced software engineers have created programming languages in high level languages that more understandable to us. These are more english-like than just 1s adn 0s.

Then a special program called compiler then compiles these instructions to machine form so that they run in the CPU. One of these high level languages is Java.

Java is a high-level programming language that follows in the tradition of C/C++. Sun Microsystems, the original company that created Java described it as "a simple, robust, object-oriented, platform-independent, multithreaded, dynamic, general-purpose programming environment".

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